2.1. pyopus.evaluator.measure
— Performance measure extraction¶
Performance measure extraction module
All functions in this module do one of the following things:
 return an object of a Python numeric type (int, float, or complex)
 return an ndimensional array (where n can be 0) of int, float or complex type
 return None to indicate a failure
 raise an exception to indicate a more severe failure
All signals x(t) are defined in tabular form which means that a signal is fully defined with two 1dimensional arrays of values of the same size. One array is the scale which represents the values of the scale (t) while the other column represents the values of the signal (x) corresponding to the scale points.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
debug
(msg)¶ Prints a debug message in the log.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Deg2Rad
(degrees)¶ Converts degrees to radians.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Rad2Deg
(radians)¶ Converts radians to degrees.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
dB2gain
(db, unit='db20')¶ Converts gain magnitude in decibels to gain as a factor.
unit is the type of decibels to convert from:
db
anddb20
are equivalent and should be used when the conversion of voltage/current gain decibels is required (20dB = gain factor of 10.0).db10
should be used for power gain decibels conversion (10dB = gain factor of 10.0)

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
gain2dB
(x, unit='db20')¶ Converts gain as a factor to magnitude in decibels.
unit is the type of decibels to convert to:
db
anddb20
are equivalent and should be used when the conversion to voltage/current gain decibels is required (gain factor of 10.0 = 20dB).db10
should be used for conversion to power gain decibels conversion (gain factor of 10.0 = 10dB)

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
XatI
(x, i)¶ Returns the value in 1dimensional array x corresponding to fractional index i. This operation is equivalent to a table lookup with linear interpolation where the first column of the table represents the index (i) and the second column holds the components of *x.
If i is a 1dimensional array the return value is an array of the same shape holding the results of table lookups corresponding to fractional indices in array i.
i must satisfy 0 <= i <= x.size1.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
IatXval
(x, val, slope='any')¶ Returns a 1dimensional array of fractional indices corresponding places in vector x where the linearly interpolated value is equal to val. These are the crossings of function f(i)=x(i) with g(i)=val. slope specifies what kind of crossings are returned:
any
 return all crossingsrising
 return only crossings where the slope of f(i) is positive or zerofalling
 return only crossings where the slope of f(i) is negative or zero
This function corresponds to a reverse table lookup with linear interpolation where the first folumn of the table contains the index and the second column contains the corresponding values of x. The reverse lookup finds the fractional indices coresponding to val in the second column of the table.
There can be no crossings (empty return array) or more than one crossing (return array size>1).
The fractional indices are returned in an increasing sequence.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
filterI
(i, direction='right', start=None, includeStart=False)¶ Returns a 1dimensional array of fractional indices obtained by processing fractional indices given in i.
If direction is
right
i is traversed from lower to higher indices. Only the indices from i that are greater than start are included in the return value.If direction is
left
i is traversed from higher to lower indices. Only the indices from i that are less than start are included in the return value.The filtered indices are returned in the same order as they appear in i.
If includeStart is
True
the greater than and less than comparison operators are replaced by greater than or equal to and less than or equal to. This includes indices which are equal to start in the return value.If start is not given, it defaults to
i[0]
if direction isright
andi[1]
if direction isleft
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
XatIrange
(x, i1, i2=None)¶ Returns a subvector (1dimensional array) of a vector given by 1dimensional array x. The endpoints of the subvector correspond to fractional indices i1 and i2.
If i2 is not given the return value is the same as the return value of
XatI(x, i1)
.i1 and i2 must satisfy
 0 <= i1 <= x.size1
 0 <= i2 <= x.size1
 i1 <= i2
If the endpoints do not correspond to integer indices the subvector endpoints are obtained with linear interpolation (see
XatI()
function).

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
dYdI
(y)¶ Returns the derivative of 1dimensional vector y with respect to its index.
Uses 2nd order polynomial interpolation before the actual derivative is calculated.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
dYdX
(y, x)¶ Derivative of a 1dimensional vector y with respect to the 1dimensional vector x. The arrays representing y and x must be of the same size.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
integYdX
(y, x)¶ Integral of a 1dimensional vector x with respect to its scale given by a 1dimensional vector x. The arrays representing y and x must be of the same size.
Uses 2nd order polynomial interpolation before the actual integral is calculated.
The lower limit for integration is
x[0]
while the pints in x define the upper limits. This means that the first point of the result (the one corresponding tox[0]
) is 0.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
DCgain
(output, input)¶ Returns the maximal gain (slope) of a nonlinear transfer function output(input).
output and input are 1dimensional arrays of the same size.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
DCswingAtGain
(output, input, relLevel, type='out')¶ Returns the input or output interval corresponding to the range where the gain (slope) of output(input) is above relLevel times maximal slope. Only rellevel < 1 makes sense in this measurement.
type specifies what to return
out
 return the output values intervalin
 return the input values interval
relLevel must satisfy 0 <= relLevel <= 1.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACcircle
(unit='deg')¶ Returns the full circle in units specified by unit
deg
 return 360rad
 return 2*``pi``

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACtf
(output, input)¶ Return the transfer function output/input where output and input are complex vectors of the same size representing the systems response at various frequencies.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACmag
(tf, unit='db')¶ Return the magnitude in desired unit of a small signal tranfer function tf.
db
anddb20
stand for voltage/current gain decibels where 20dB = gain factor of 10.0db10
stands for voltage/current gain decibels where 10dB = gain factor of 10.0abs
stands for gain factor

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACphase
(tf, unit='deg', unwrapTol=0.5)¶ Return the phase in desired unit of a transfer function tf
deg
stands for degreesrad
stands for radians
The phase is unwrapped (discontinuities are stiched together to make it continuous). The tolerance of the unwrapping (in radians) is unwrapTol times
pi
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACgain
(tf, unit='db')¶ Returns the maximal gain magnitude of a transfer function in units given by unit
db
anddb20
stand for voltage/current gain decibels where 20dB = gain factor of 10.0db10
stands for power gain decibels where 10dB = gain factor of 10.0abs
stands for gain factor

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACbandwidth
(tf, scl, filter='lp', levelType='db', level=3.0)¶ Return the bandwidth of a transfer function tf on frequency scale scl. tf and scl must be 1dimensional arrays of the same size.
The type of the transfer function is given by filter where
lp
stands for lowpass (return frequency at level)hp
stands for highpass (return frequency at level)bp
stands for bandpass (return bandwidth at level)
levelType gives the units for the level argument. Allowed values for levelType are
db
anddb20
stand for voltage/current gain decibels where 20dB = gain factor of 10.0db10
stands for power gain decibels where 10dB = gain factor of 10.0abs
stands for gain factor
level specifies the level at which the bandwidth should be measured. For
db
,db10
, anddb20
levelType the level is relative to the maximal gain and is added to the maximal gain. Forabs
levelType the level is a factor with which the maximal gain factor must be multiplied to obtain the gain factor level at which the bandwidth should be measured.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACugbw
(tf, scl)¶ Returns the unitigain bandwidth of a transfer function tf on frequency scale scl. 1dimensional arrays tf and scl must be of the same size.
The return value is the frequency at which the transfer function reaches 1.0 (0dB).

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACphaseMargin
(tf, unit='deg', unwrapTol=0.5)¶ Returns the phase margin of a transfer function given by 1dimensional array tf. Uses unwrapTol as the unwrap tolerance for phase (see
ACphase()
). The phase margin is returned in units given by unit wheredeg
stands for degreesrad
stands for radians
The phase margin (in degrees) is the amount the phase at the point where the transfer function magnitude reaches 0dB should be decreased to become equal to 180.
For stable systems the phase margin is >0.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
ACgainMargin
(tf, unit='db', unwrapTol=0.5)¶ Returns the gain margin of a transfer function given by 1dimensional array tf. Uses unwrapTol as the unwrap tolerance for phase (see
ACphase()
). The gain margin is returned in units given by unit wheredb
anddb20
stand for voltage/current gain decibels where 20dB = gain factor of 10.0db10
stands for power gain decibels where 10dB = gain factor of 10.0abs
stands for gain factor
The phase margin (in voltage/current gain decibels) is the amount the gain at the point where phase reaches 180 degrees should be increased to become equal to 0.
For stable systems the gain margin is >0.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Tdelay
(sig1, sig2, scl, lev1type='rel', lev1=0.5, edge1='any', skip1=0, lev2type='rel', lev2=0.5, edge2='any', skip2=0, t1=None, t2=None)¶ Calculates the delay of signal sig2 with respect to signal sig1. Both signals share a common scale scl. The delay is the difference in scale between the point where sig2 reaches level lev2. edge2 defines the type of crossing between sig2 and lev2
rising
 the slope of sig2 is positive or zero at the crossingfalling
 the slope of sig2 is negative or zero at the crossingany
 the slope of sig2 does not matter
skip2 specifies how many crossings since the beginning of sig2 are skipped before the crossing that is used as the point in sig2 is reached. 0 means that the first crossing is used as the point in sig2.
Similarly the point in sig1 is defined with lev1, edge1, and skip1.
t1 and t2 are the points on the scale defining the beginning and the end of the part of sig1 and sig2 which is used in the calculation of the delay. skip1 and skip2 are counted from point t1 on the scale. The default values of t1 and t2 are the first and the last value in scl.
If lev1type is
abs
lev1 specifies the value of the signal at the crossing. If lev1type isrel
lev1 specifies the relative value of the signal (between 0.0 and 1.0) where the 0.0 level is defined as the sig1 level at point t1 on the scale while the 1.0 level is defined as the sig1 level at point t2 on the scale. If t1 and t2 are not given the 0.0 and 1.0 relative levels are taken at the beginning and the end of sig2.Similarly lev2type defines the meaning of lev2 with respect to sig2, t1, and t2.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Tshoot
(measureType, sig, scl, t1=None, t2=None, outputType='rel')¶ Gets the overshoot or the undershoot of signal sig with scale scl. The over/undershoot is measured on the scale interval between t1 and t2. If t1 and t2 are not given the whole signal sig1 is used in the measurement.
The 0.0 and 1.0 relative levels in the signal are defined as the values of sig at points t1 and t2 on the scale. The default values of t1 and t2 are the first and the last value in scl.
Overshoot is the amount the signal rises above the 1.0 relative level on the observed scale interval defined by t1 and t2. Undershoot is the amount the signal falls below the 0.0 relative level on the observed scale interval.
If measureType is set to
over
, overshoot is measured and the function expects the signal level at t1 to be lower than the signal level at t2. If measureType isunder
the opposite must hold.Over/undershoot can be measured as relative (when outputType is
rel
) or absolute (when outputType isabs
). Abolute values reflect actual signal values while relative values are measured with respect to the 0.0 and 1.0 relative signal level.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Tovershoot
(sig, scl, t1=None, t2=None, outputType='rel')¶ An alias for
Tshoot()
with measureType set toover
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Tundershoot
(sig, scl, t1=None, t2=None, outputType='rel')¶ An alias for
Tshoot()
with measureType set tounder
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
TedgeTime
(edgeType, sig, scl, lev1type='rel', lev1=0.1, lev2type='rel', lev2=0.9, t1=None, t2=None)¶ Measures rise or fall time (scale interval) of signal sig on scale scl. The value of the edgeType parameter determines the type of the measurement
rising
 measures rise timefalling
 measures fall time
t1 and t2 specify the scale interval on which the measurement takes place. Their default values correspond to the first and the last value in scl. The values of the signal at *t1 and t2 define the 0.0 and the 1.0 relative signal value.
lev1type and lev specify the point at which the signal rise/fall begins. If lev1type is
abs
the level specified by lev1 is the actual signal value. If lev1type isrel
the value given by lev1 is a relative signal value.Similarly lev2type and lev2 apply to the point at which the signal rise/fall ends.
lev1type, lev1, lev2type, and lev2 are by default set to measure the 10%..90% rise/fall time.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
TriseTime
(sig, scl, lev1type='rel', lev1=0.1, lev2type='rel', lev2=0.9, t1=None, t2=None)¶ An alias for
TedgeTime()
with edgeType set torising
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
TfallTime
(sig, scl, lev1type='rel', lev1=0.1, lev2type='rel', lev2=0.9, t1=None, t2=None)¶ An alias for
TedgeTime()
with edgeType set tofalling
.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
TslewRate
(edgeType, sig, scl, lev1type='rel', lev1=0.1, lev2type='rel', lev2=0.9, t1=None, t2=None)¶ Measures the slew rate of a signal. The slew rate is defined as the quotient dx/dt where dx denotes the signal difference between the beginning and the end of signal’s rise/fall, while dt denotes the rise/fall time. Slew rate is always positive.
See
TedgeTime()
for the explanation of the function’s parameters.

pyopus.evaluator.measure.
TsettlingTime
(sig, scl, tolType='rel', tol=0.05, t1=None, t2=None)¶ Measures the time (scale interval on scale scl) in which signal sig settles within some prescribed tolerance of its final value.
t1 and t2 define the scale interval within which the settling time is measured. The default values of t1 and t2 are the first and the last value of scl. The final signal value if the value of the signal corresponding to point t2 on the scale.
The 0.0 and the 1.0 relative signal levels are defined as signal levels at points t1 and t2 on the scale.
If tolType is
abs
the settling time is measured from t1 to the point at which the signal remains within tol of its final value at t2.If tolType is
rel
the settling tolerance is defined as tol times the difference between the signal levels corresponding to the 0.0 and 1.0 relative signal level.

class
pyopus.evaluator.measure.
Poverdrive
(driver1, p1, driver2, p2)¶ Calculates the difference between the values obtained from two driver functions.
Objects of this class are callable. The calling convention is
object(name)
. When called it returns the difference between the values returned by a call to driver1 with arguments (name, p1) and the value returned by a call to driver2 with arguments (name, p2). The difference is returned as an array. If the size of the array is 1, it is returned as a scalar (0dimensional array).Poverdrive
can be used for calculating the VgsVth difference of one or more MOS transistors by defining the measurement script in the following way:obj=m.Poverdrive(p, 'vgs', p, 'vth') retval=list(map(obj, ['mn2', 'mn3', 'mn9'])) __result=np.array(retval)
The
map()
Python builtin function calls thePoverdrive
objectobj
3 times, once for every member of the list['mn2', 'mn3', 'mn9']
and collects the return values in a list which is then returned bymap
and stored inretval
.A call to
Poverdrive
objectobj
with argumentmn2
returns the result of:p('mn2', 'vgs')p('mn2', 'vth')
which is actually the difference between the Vgs and the threshold voltage of MOS transistor
mn1
. Soretval
is a list holding the values of the difference between Vgs and the threshold voltage of transistors listed in['mn2', 'mn3', 'mn9']
.Finally the list is converted to an array because the
PerformanceEvaluator
object can’s handle lists.The previous measurement script could also be written as a measurement expression:
np.array(list(map(m.Poverdrive(p, 'vgs', p, 'vth'), ['mn2', 'mn3', 'mn9'])))
Note that during measurement evaluation (when a
PerformanceEvaluator
object is called) the functionp()
accesses device properties calculated by the simulator while thepyopus.evaluator.measure
andnumpy
modules are available asm
andnp
.